Expert systems, decision support systems

Expert system (ES) is a specialized software that is based on specialized human knowledge and expertise and attempts to provide an answer to a specific problem or domain of application. ESs make use of a knowledge base, usually provided by a human expert. A common characteristic of ESs is the ability to handle unclear and fuzzy knowledge and data. A Decision Support Systems (DSS) is an expert system that is used to support decision making activities, i.e. backup the decision of a human to a specific area. DSSs serve the management level of the organization and help to take decisions, which may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance.